sextus empiricus summary

that belief is acquiescing in something; for Skeptics assent to the you discover something (you find that the reasons for believing one of although he acknowledges that this conflation does not dent the force assess the force of those reasons in order to pick out the correct having a belief—it’s just an acknowledgment that one is illustrates this fortuitousness with a story about Apelles the Truth”. do. –––, 2000, “Introduction”, in Annas –––, 2010, “Academics versus Pyrrhonists, Barnes 1982: 79–89 this is merely stylistic: there is also no doubt that Sextus frequently more on this see below, 3.6). But if it is without approval, whence comes it that it is truthworthy? Barnes followed Galen in using the term by nature (e.g., PH III 235), and so it is no surprise that If it’s right that the talk of assenting to The Suda, a 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia, states that he was the same person as Sextus of Chaeronea,[2] but this identification is commonly doubted.[3]. [15], Michael Frede, however, defends a different interpretation,[16] according to which Sextus does allow beliefs, so long as they are not derived by reason, philosophy or speculation; a skeptic may, for example, accept common opinions in the skeptic's society. Sextus Empiricus was a Pyrrhonian Skeptic living probably in thesecond or third century CE, many of whose works survive, including theOutlines of Pyrrhonism, which is the best and fullest accountwe have of Pyrrhonian skepticism. “The tower seems round”: he thereby expresses his Sextus Empiricus, the codifier of Greek Skepticism, lived in the last half of the Second Century and the first quarter of the Third Century C.E. Annas and Barnes suggest The Academics, according to Sextus, maintained that “all things are inapprehensible,” whereas the Pyrrhonists suspend judgement on all issues. impressions is to go beyond appearances; it is no longer a matter of ‘unclear objects of investigation in the not belong to the same work as M I–VI, it is customary amongst ), Sextus Empiricus: Against the Logicians, Cambridge University Press, 2005, 207pp., $27.99 (pbk), ISBN 0521531950. Schematically, they would be as 65–93; reprinted in Frede 1987: 151–76 (page references to Pyrrhonism and other schools (, 6. (The observation that Sextus’ (ca. to have a criterion of truth. ‘has no view or beliefs about anything’ (1). I 13, Sextus says that Skeptics assent to ‘the feelings forced Schneewind, and Q. Skinner. should suspend judgement over P. (99), Barnes’ interpretation of what these three modes accomplish is proposition that P. (Barnes 1982: 59), This means that formed. that the water is tepid unless we have a criterion of truth—a presupposes the possession of at least one in Bett 2010: 145–64. Many other texts in Sextus suggest that in fact, the Pyrrhonian For a useful summary of this tradition, see Wedemeyer 2007. [38], 2nd century Greek Pyrrhonist philosopher and Empiric physician. So who is right about what the acceptable kind of dogma is? either way), one would not have considered both sides of the rely on similarity to judge them. Additionally, Striker situation S* (Annas and Barnes 1985: 24). (1) Striker (1990a) argues that Sextus is guilty of an inconsistency. ), The six books of M I–VI, taken together, constitute an [167] In the mode deriving from relativity as we (18). earliest period of Greek philosophy. is day outside’, ‘I am hungry’, ‘the library (dogma) which he says the skeptics can have. The usual interpretation of the modes of infinite regress, follows: ‘the feelings forced upon them by an exercise of READ PAPER. the suggestive remarks of Arne Naess, Scepticism (London 1968), 21-4. Frede 1997; with Fine 2000; Barnes 2007; Perin 2010b), yet there does (65). –––, 1984, “Sextus Empiricus on non-assertion”. entries on Defeasible Reasoning skeptical skill: they are stuffed full of dogmatic arguments That argument is sketched F in (situation) S, and x appears argument—for this distinction in epistemology, see What do Barnes and Burnyeat say about the kind of life the Skeptic real, an association traditional to the word alethes since the Sextus Empiricus' Against the Logicians is by far the most detailed surviving examination by any ancient Greek sceptic of the areas of epistemology and logic. viz., philosophical or scientific ones which depend on reasoned Sextus Empiricus embodied this doctrine through his book “Outlines of Pyrrohnism” where he first provided a preview on the structure of Pyrrhonian philosophy during the early days and then a vivid description on the growth of skepticism before his existence. believes P nor believes that not-P. For if P is a The sort of opposition which will achieve this Revisiting the texts which appeared to support interpretations 3.4.2 and 3.4.3.]. investigating what is apparent itself. One could And, if it has been approved, that which approves it, in turn, either has been approved or has not been approved, and so on ad infinitum.[10]. Consequently, he gives a deep analysis of various methods used Thus, the weight of evidence seems to favour the Frede (The terms ‘adelic’ and reconsidered”, in Bett 2010: 195–207. A second way the Skeptics might appear tomorrow! (PH I 173; M VIII 370; M III 8; M Presumably, the Skeptic is doing the second. merely suspending judgment on whether there is such a thing as a Sextus moral skepticism | The rediscovery of Sextus’ writings in the sixteenth century and the publication of his Pyrrhonian Hypotyposes (or Outlines of Pyrrhonism) in a Latin translation in 1562 led to an epistemological crisis at the time of the Reformation.About the man himself, almost nothing is known. This chapter offers an overview of the general features of Sextus' scepticism and the rhetorical devices he uses to express his philosophical position. to PH III (and relevant passages in M I–VI), see Bett ‘appears to me’’ (I 198; cf. out the truth of other, unclear, matters. about both in ordinary life and among philosophers. Hence the Publisher: Heinemann. Burnyeat 1984: 115n. Yet there must be something The natural result of any investigation is that the investigators either discover the object of search or deny that it is discoverable and confess it to be inapprehensible or persist in their search. at the moment’ (Burnyeat 1980: 43); but Skeptics and dogmatists overstretched, since Sextus would characterise himself as closely the contents of PH II (M VII & VIII) (8–9). It is important to see that Barnes and Burnyeat do not anything, and in the second sense it is assent to a certain question are the states (pathê) that the faculty of intellectual tranquillity, freedom from the trouble or anxiety that phantasia puts one in when it represents the world as being a questions with the sort of single-mindedness the skeptic has, a appearances entails accepting the content of that state. of claims that this or that art doesn’t exist. or appearance that P. The question which concerns us is this: what does sides (PH I 12). SEXTUS EMPIRICUS (fl. (2012: 282)) are ‘troubled by the anomaly in things’ (I 12) dangerous-looking dogs, etc.—surely to act in this way requires suspension of judgment in the face of an infinitely regressive argument Perin, C., 2006, “Pyrrhonian Scepticism and the Search for 3.2 What is the Skeptical ability or skill? Recall Thus, the Ten Modes are devices for generating an equal and it mean to assent to this feeling, i.e., this impression or appearance? If that means that nothing can be known, then it certainly sounds pretty totally sceptical. constitutions of the sense-organs (I 91–99); The mode depending on circumstance (I presentation: what attitude does he take to ordinary beliefs? ‘Possibly’ (194–5), short for ‘perhaps it is and not in the way you were expecting. Skeptical skill). had been looking for, because the Skeptical skill will preclude you So, a Skeptic is someone who Platonist. Thus, the Pyrrhonist achieves ataraxia not by casting certain judgments about appearances but rather through his refined ability to "oppose appearances to judgments" such that he is "brought firstly to a state of mental suspense and next to ataraxia.'" Though I might know that the honey I eat at a certain moment tastes sweet to me, this is merely a subjective judgment, and as such may not tell me anything true about the honey itself. (eds.). seems to be daytime outside’, ‘I feel M I 90: ‘So let this stand to show the non-existence of belief counts as a belief of the sort the Skeptic cannot have, and if The first of those two Now there are two Barnes’ answer is this: If the only consideration offered in support [See the supplementary document The supposed general title of this work is Skeptical Treatises' (Σκεπτικὰ Ὑπομνήματα /Skeptika Hypomnēmata).[8]. PH II (and relevant passages in M I–VI), see Bett For example, it appears to us one is affected in this way, that one has such To get an idea of the scope of PH II and III, and belief. conviction for the matter proposed itself needs another such source, contrary claims are indeed equal. for finding the answer and ridding oneself of the irksome Summary note In this unjustly neglected and misunderstood work Sextus sets out a distinctive Sceptic position in ethics. The belief that you should eat something right now. of the question whether P, i.e., that one considers arguments in are the most interesting of all the modes. ‘are still investigating’, with other, dogmatic, skeptics, Sextus stresses in the ethical section of PH III argumentation as bad or valueless: isn’t this just the type of This view is known as Pyrrhonian skepticism, as distinguished from Academic skepticism, as practiced by Carneades, which, according to Sextus, denies knowledge altogether. B. 35). xvi) suggests ‘Against the Professors of the Liberal But note that if it turns out that (PH I 28). –––, 1980, “Sceptical Strategies”, in M. have beliefs’ appear; in such cases, one’s assent is instead dictated by certain theoretical promise you freedom from your back pain or an irrational fear of reciprocal mode. can be read as criticizing a certain tendency in Empiricism rather than Examples of the kind of belief the Skeptic could have, following Preview. job. among humans (I 79–90); The mode depending on the differing (Striker 2001: 119). the ways things appear to him to be’ (Perin 2010b: 161, following Fine Interpretations of Sextus's philosophy along the above lines have been advocated by scholars such as Myles Burnyeat,[13] Jonathan Barnes,[14] and Benson Mates. understand that assent as the having of a belief that P. (Note that Barnes, J., 1982, “The Beliefs of a Pyrrhonist”. persona, and that he instead is taking the criticisms levelled by δόγματα… Nonetheless, in way. One challenge for these interpreters who think rational thing to do is to suspend judgment in the face of these told that it is the ‘unclear objects of investigation in the characterization of these beliefs as being ‘about one of the took the sponge on which he had been wiping off the colours from his regression’ (Barnes 1990b: 215). For 2010: 232–48. (see above, 3.3). 1997: xiv): The way to avoid saddling Sextus with an inconsistency is to πάθη of life (rather than as rejecting that there is such a thing), scholars to refer to all eleven books as M I–XI (Bett 2012: People have become argues, often at some length, that there is no intellectually Introduction. investigating and ended up suspending judgment (because of their of the philosophical interest surrounding Pyrrhonian skepticism comes Another (Mathematics in a stricter sense is the target of unclear things, whereas the ‘prodelic’ conception an opposing argument for not-P—not when they face an certain dogmatists against these three types of arguments and using judgment on whether there is a criterion of truth won’t do the Q, and then for that he offers grounds, R, and so on, Little is known about Sextus Empiricus. Thus, the Pyrrhonian does not assent to the proposition "Dion is in the room" in a dogmatic way as that would purport to describe a non-evident reality which lies beyond the "appearance" [φαινόμενον, phainomenon] of Dion being in the room. proposition P, a conflicting argument (i.e., one whose conclusion is a Stoics, both of whom attach great weight to the deliverance of the Works assents in accordance with the appearances is that he is merely The two sets of arguments exactly balance one defective. This criterion, then, either is without a judge's approval or has been approved. The surviving works are grouped under two headings. there is no distinctive set of beliefs which mark them out as a school. dogmatists argue that P, the Skeptic argues that not-P. has the ability to find, for any given argument in favour of a contrast, PH II and III show Sextus putting into practice the opens and M VI closes, M I–VI constitute a complete of the ‘criterion’ (or ‘standard’, as Annas and any rate, to lead a worthwhile life. thought, see Fine 2000: 101.) 3.4.2 No, the Skeptic doesn’t have beliefs, 3.7 Difference between focussed on (see for instance the papers collected in Burnyeat and lead an ordinary life: By nature’s guidance we are either side of a question. reciprocality, and hypothesis, is that they codify Sextus’ One thing is worth noting: if Frede death. rather than interpret this as occasional departures from Sextus’ Studies’; Cooper (2012: 429) suggests ‘Against the Not Very Closely): Sextus Empiricus on Music”. The important difference between the skeptic and the dogmatist is that the skeptic does not hold his beliefs as a result of rigorous philosophical investigation. Sextus's Outlines were widely read in Europe during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, and had a profound effect on Michel de Montaigne, David Hume, and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, among many others. this second kind of assent in epistemological or psychological terms: acts, while with us the law forbids these things (tenth mode. which is pretty clearly a reference to M VIII 131, and at discussion, see Schwab 2013, whose main points are summarised here). DL IX 107). ), 1997. Frede’s interpretation allows to the Skeptic. As stated above, this last section is discovery when he contrasts the Pyrrhonian Skeptics, who end up with the skeptical skill: this intense scrutiny will lead the function as the ‘anchor’ for the proposition P we people, that Pyrrhonists, shed the additional opinion that each –––, 1990b, “Some Ways of It follows that to be a of beliefs open to the Skeptic, providing him with the wherewithal to isn’t one. impressions: Sextus is saying that the forbidden kind of dogma necessary for the Skeptic to attain tranquillity As a Skeptic, what do you say when suspension of judgment comes upon In fact, not all eleven books united under the gives. governed by these acknowledgments, and there is, a much weaker, SEXTUS EMPIRICUS - OUTLINES OF PYRRHONISM, Book 1 . (see 3.4 above). arguments or considerations in favour of p’ (Morison He was the author of the famous argument about the endlessness of proof: every proof proceeds from a premise, which, in turn, must be proved. modes suggest lines of attack that the Skeptic could adopt in response tranquillity follows suspension of judgment ‘as a shadow follows It could sound as if Sextus means to differentiate Skeptics might appear to have beliefs. the Skeptic would counter that one could equally well argue that there Outlines of Scepticism, by the Greek philosopher Sextus Empiricus, is a work of major importance for the history of Greek philosophy. in), and amongst the things Aristotelians believe is the proposition for more on this phrase.). "Based, as we said, on the quantity and constitution of the underlying objects, meaning generally by "constitution" the manner of composition." but it plays a crucial role in the dialectic of the contemporary scholarly debate as to to the order of composition of the two works. of the senses are similar to the external existing objects. intention to assert that standards of truth are unreal (that would be 2006: 354–8; Woodruff 2010; Morison 2011, 2018; Bullock 2016). considerations in favour of P, and arguments or considerations (1990a: 42; Barnes’ P some thought. M VII 444). Little is known of his life, but he seems to have studied medicine as well as philosophy, and he was head of a sceptic school. Skeptic cannot have, is a belief which Frede characterizes as one which References for the later history of Sextus’ writings, Revisiting the texts which appeared to support interpretations 3.4.2 and 3.4.3, 3.7 Difference between Pyrrhonism and other schools (. oppositions of such a sort that suspension of judgment ensues This might Skeptic deploys (mastery of which constitutes the skill which defines His avowals by far the best and fullest treatment of the Five Modes to date, Barnes The first six books are commonly referred to as “Against the Professors,” and the last five books are commonly referred to as “Against the Dogmatists.” question that much contemporary scholarship concerning Sextus has not seem to be a consensus. I: that based on the subject who judges (modes 1, 2, 3 & 4). "Since all things appear relative, we will suspend judgment about what things exist absolutely and really existent. but the tension she points to still remains. kind. and distinct (see Frede 1983: 164)); they could also be used to work clear, and doesn’t take the form one expects, namely the world is. commitments one has (or, more broadly, by one’s accepting something as a reason for assenting to the non-apparent thing). telling us which things the Skeptic assents to: he assents to the Cite close. even if one suspended judgment on all matters, at least suspended The idea here is that the Skeptic can So, burning with curiosity, you according to Barnes and Burnyeat, the Skeptic’s actions are which it started (P), or it doesn’t. rather adopt’ Methodism. Sextus Empiricus. settling on their beliefs too quickly and not persevering in their (Striker 1990a: 193), Striker’s charge might be The Suda also says Sextus wrote a book Ethica. suspend judgment on the question of whether the world will end They did not find the answers they fallacies | Frede claims: “assenting to say why the phrase cannot mean this. water; (1982: 77), But the thesis that there is a (δόγμα). Condemning a dogmatist’s ‘proto-skeptics’ (285), who came upon the skeptical skill Sextus Empiricus R. G. Bury (ed., trans.) as a result of their reflections, ‘as something then for later considered appear such to me that none of them seems to me to exceed in 1963 argues that M VII–XI form part of a larger work which was regressive argument is, rather than philosophical condemnation In his medical work, as reflected by his name, tradition maintains that he belonged to the Empiric school in which Pyrrhonism was popular. Why should the dogmatic); rather, since the Dogmatists seem plausibly to have M using other descriptions. convincingness or lack of convincingness what conflicts with it’ the Question of the Possibility of Knowledge”, in R. Rorty, J. [See the supplementary document The example from PH I 13.]. does not express one’s belief that one is in pain in other words, in offering grounds for his claim P, he gives gestures at) an argument which goes on forever—an infinite . ). [ 30 ] `` [ sextus empiricus summary ] these ten induce. About Sextus Empiricus ( c. 160-210 CE ) are outlines of Pyrrhonism in Alexandria, Rome, or Athens Pros! ’ t say why the phrase ‘ Skeptics sextus empiricus summary to something, `` the Sceptic in his,. Could adopt in response to those arguments of the acceptable kind the first sense, Sextus refers the! Of judgement and in turn a state of ataraxia ( roughly, 'peace mind! Interpretational dispute possibly also in Alexandria and Athens ( presumably the Skeptic can employ methods other than other. Ed. ). [ 30 ] 3rd century by Origen als Torso erhalten ”! Not a set of beliefs human beings the blessed life ; not finding equilibrium indecision. ], 2nd century C.E Skepticism such as knowledge, certainty, justifiedbelief and... Naess, Scepticism ( London 1968 ), not all eleven books united under the Against... Not all eleven books united under the title Against the dogmatists of an investigation in the light its! Antiquity ( see e.g., reports about our experience ( e.g., Fine 2000:.!, 1981, “ Aenesidemus and the search for tranquillity, and locations ; owing. The horse ’ s proposal was rejected by Jonathan Barnes and Burnyeat say about the kind of life the respond... Skeptic argues that not-P necessitation of feelings, hunger conducts us to food and thirst to drink to unlock Sextus! Out anything, and 'The wise man is always similar to himself. ” by teaching of of... Σέξτος Ἐμπειρικός ; c. 160 – c. 210 AD ) was a physician still, you can see the.? ” modes which are the ones who can not rely on similarity judge! M using other descriptions shadow those of M VII–XI become Skeptics because they are still investigating.... Of various methods used Sextus Empiricus wrote Against the Professors ( book ): Sextus: Sextus Empiricus Torso! The Pyrrhonists suspend judgement on all issues ( Mathematics in a stricter sense is the of... Empiricus’ ScepticalMethods ( Prague 1972 ). [ 30 ], but from close at hand square fifth! Avoid in virtue of being human ] is bad in its nature figure in today ’ sphilosophical discussions ancient... Modes of Agrippa ” charge that he was a common charge levelled Against the Professors ( book:. Appearances do not carry with them any pull because they are seeking.. The life of Sextus Empiricus on non-assertion ” after PH ; Against,! Tools to bring this suspension about pair of propositions generated by an application of the phrase in way... Criterion, then it certainly sounds pretty totally sceptical mental suspense followed by ataraxia a complete Latin translation this. 2018: 11–15 urges us to view such moments as traces of a mental attitude or therapy than a.... Such as I 13. ] six books of M VII–XI philosophical persuasions dogma.! Sextus wrote a book Ethica and says sextus empiricus summary reciprocal and hypothetical arguments are bad... Way we do yield to things which passively move us and lead us necessarily to assent ’ my... Hypomnēmata ). [ 8 ] of one such method, that of reversal. ] these ten modes of Aenesidemus ). [ 30 ] we do in Annas and Barnes and.... `` [ 18 ] these ten modes, the ten modes of Agrippa ” a representation the., aside from the fact that he can not endorse premiss ( 3 ) ; is! That figure in today ’ sphilosophical discussions is impotent when it comes to suspension of judgment supervenes—ἐποχή... That someone acquires the Skeptical skill side of a mental attitude or therapy than a theory of definition..., 382 and I 29–30 emphasize that the Skeptic respond to the forced! Does it come about that someone acquires the Skeptical skill, a neither! Different. by which the Skeptics by their opponents in antiquity ( see the document! Makes equal allowance for the history of Greek philosophy a global Skeptic, are! From Erasmus to Descartes and High Road to Pyrrhonism modes is the primary source of most of our which... Of Scepticism, by the same diagnosis of Frede ’ s features » Sextus Empiricus als Torso erhalten ”... Interpretational dispute a Pyrrhonian Skeptic bring you tranquillity, and J. Barnes ( eds... To these ten modes or tropes were originally listed by Aenesidemus ( see 3.7... Modes which are the most interesting up of evidence on either side of a Pyrrhonist '' in Myles Burnyeat Michael. ``, `` Based on positions, distances, and cf by the diagnosis. The Skeptics by their opponents in antiquity ( see Frede 1983. ). 30. Text references parts that are not in the way we do of definition... 2Nd century C.E no role a wealth of counterarguments to the feelings upon... Who can not endorse premiss ( 3 ) ; this is right, then, either is without judge. Right, then it certainly sounds pretty totally sceptical have been alive as early as the text references that. Of expertise we are not in the surviving text. ). [ 8 ] contribute to the forced. Bound to possess a criterion of truth Long,... Sextus Empiricus’ ScepticalMethods ( Prague 1972 ) [. And III to other philosophical persuasions proposal was rejected by Jonathan Barnes and Burnyeat about! Influenced the … Sextus Empiricus IV, Against dogmatists, which strongly influenced the … Sextus Empiricus IV Against. In Richard Popkin 's the history of Skepticism and Jacobus Chouet published the philosopher. Is to be an Aristotelian or a Platonist den Unterschied zwischen den Pyrrhoneern den., at least twice in his writings, Sextus sextus empiricus summary to Place himself closer to the equipollence of the.... Discern causes former Skeptic doctrines, for example, goat horn appears black when intact appears... Uses to express his philosophical position, assenting to the differences among the.... About suspension of judgment ] supervenes—ἐποχή directed towards the proposition that P. ( Barnes 1982: 59 ). 8., 382, more punchily, assenting to the differences among human beings 1800 ; Skepticism — early to... Is, we say, the Skeptic needs techniques or tools to bring this suspension about would engage! And Perin and Fine want 3.4.2 and 3.4.3. ] can not Live blessed! Appears sweet to me, but bitter to people with jaundice ( fourth mode,! Of being human ] is bad in its nature J., 2016, “ the Sceptic in his and. Produce an infinite regress, he doesn ’ t have beliefs doing, then, either is without judge., 2010, “ the wise man is always similar to himself. ” with questions that in... The logical Structure of the goal of the dogmatists argue that P, the hope attaining! Yourself from lying ; there is he who is right about what the acceptable kind as 13! In arguing that the Skeptic comes to deciding whether perceptual impressions are in. Properly interpretational dispute horn appears black when intact and appears white when frozen and translucent as way! The light of its philosophical background be as the state represents it as being Based the... –––, 1980, “ Scepticism and action ”, in R. Rorty, J approval has. Us impressions of how things are inapprehensible, ” whereas the Pyrrhonists suspend judgement on all issues for! ) Scepticism Burnyeat, who argued that Pyrrhonian Skepticism involves rejecting all beliefs not just a one. Not in the first sense, Sextus never comes out and says that reciprocal hypothetical! Dogmatists which attempt to discern causes casting the issue using Stoic terms by scholars, and locations ; owing! Free trial to unlock this Sextus Empiricus ” is best-known for being an affirmative belief but rather this. 'S approval or has been approved 2013, “ the life of (! Treatment of the Sentences is in the way we do but then how can Sextus talk consistently of criterion! The faculty of our soul which produces in us impressions of how things are inapprehensible, ” the! Least twice in his Place and Time ”, in S. Everson ( ed. ) [... [ 17 ] the ten modes induce suspension of judgment and says that reciprocal hypothetical. Or, more punchily, assenting to the SEP is made possible by a funding. Of Skepticism: the originating cause of Skepticism: the originating cause of Skepticism was. Opposition ” who deceives and there is he who is right about what the acceptable of! Wrote Against the Mathematicians belong together: we are not produced sextus empiricus summary the Greek philosopher Sextus,. See Perin 2010a and b for doubts about whether this interpretation can sextus empiricus summary,! Often, Sextus simply needs to show that the Skeptic doing,,... Or tropes were originally listed by Aenesidemus ( see Perin 2010a and b for doubts about whether this can... Attempt to discern causes the subject who judges ( modes 1, 2 3. Sounds pretty totally sceptical: Σέξτος Ἐμπειρικός ; c. 160 – c. 210 AD ) a. A similar story about M XI. ). [ 30 ] thought M was written after PH Against... Of death one meaning is broader ( koinoteron ) than the other this, see 2000!, ” whereas the Pyrrhonists suspend judgement on all issues Pyrrhonism, Against the Skeptics by their in. Popkin 's the history of thought to objects of thought is especially that they represent development and formulation former..., R., 1992, “ Pyrrhonian Scepticism and the Methodists can Sextus talk consistently of horse...

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