a site chosen for industrial development where total costs are theoretically at their lowest, as opposed to location at the point of maximum revenue. Substitution Principle maintains that the correct location of a production facility is where the net profit is the greatest. Many in Europe, North America, and Asia; account for a lot of the world's industrial output, Eastern United States, Mexico, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and East Asia, Grouping together of many firms from the same industry in a single area for collective or cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing of labor resources, economies of scale resulting from the concentration of people and production in urban areas, this industry has to comply with clean air rules while still trying to make the most money possible in their production, a geographical theory that refers to how the price and demand on land changes as the distance towards the CBD increases or decreases; suggests that only commercial landlords can afford the land within the CBD, A location where large shipments of goods are broken up into smaller containers for delivery to local markets, speeed and cost of forms of transportation, the ability of an individual, firm, or country to produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than other producers, multiple changes are set in motion by one even, The dispersal of an industry that formerly existed in an established agglomeration, Characterizes a production process in which an increase in the scale of the firm causes a decrease in the long run average cost of each unit, A form of tourism, based on the enjoyment of scenic areas or natural wonders, that aims to provide an experience of nature or culture in an environmentally sustainable way, a trading post where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying import duties, Areas where governments create favorable investment and trading conditions to attract export-oriented industries, Expenses that do not change in proportion to the activity of a business, Manufacturing activities in which cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for determining the location of the industry, urban center with certain attributes that, if augmented by investment, will stimulate regional economic development, A concept developed by Alfred Weber to describe the optimal location of a manufacturing establishment in relation to the costs of transport and labor, and the relative advantages of agglomeration or deglomeration, industry is diminishing in size and importance, industry is increasing in size and importance, A collective term that refers to public works such as a system of highways, railroads, and airports, An industry in which wages and other compensation paid to employees constitute a high percentage of expenses, a philosophy that assumes that a sale does not depend on an aggressive sales force but rather on a customer's decision to purchase product; it is synonymous with the marketing concept, an effect in which increased spending produces an increase in revenue greater than the initial amount spent, When resources for a national or global market run low, tendency for an industry or other type of economic activity to locate close to its resources, involve the physical characteristics of an area, involve characteristics relative to a specific area or place, specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment, transition to a more environmentally friendly product, The population required to make provision of services economically feasible or the minimum market needed to support the supply of a product or service, through processes such as globalization time is accelerated and the significance of space is reduced, the idea that one country(country A) can produce products that another country (country B) can't; the other country (country B) will then trade for those products with its own products that the other country (country A) can't produce, A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located, Something's ability to be found anywhere at any time, expenses that change with the number of products produced, Creator of the model that states that the optimum location of a manufacturing firm is explained in terms of cost minimization, Makes something that gains volume or weight during production, An industry in which the inputs weigh more than the final products, A group of cities that form an interconnected, internationally dominant system of global control of finance and commerce, When acids dissolved in water are in rain, snow, or fog, Tiny droplets of sulfuric acid and nitric acid form and return to earths surface, The oxygen consumed by the decomposing organic waste, Synthetic organic compounds first created in the 1950s and primarily used as refrigerants and as propellants; involvement in the destruction of the ozone layer led to the signing of the Montreal Protocol, warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere, Forms in the presence of sunlight, hydrocarbons, as well as nitrogen oxides; causes respiratory problems, stinging in the eyes, and an ugly haze over cities, Enters a body of water at a specific location, layer in the upper atmosphere located between 30 and 45 kilometers above the Earth's surface; acts as a filter for the Sun's harmful UV rays, thinning of Earth's ozone layer caused by CFC's leaking into the air and reacting chemically with the ozone, breaking the ozone molocules apart, Disposal site for non-hazardous solid waste that is spread in layers and compacted to the smallest practical volume, System of standardized mass production attributed to Henry Ford, Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less-skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries, occurs when the factory is located close to market and supplier to reduce need for stalk items and supplies, The selective transfer of some jobs to developing countries, Sending industrial processes out for external production, Sometimes used to describe lean production; contrast to fordist production, of or relating to a society or economy marked by a lessened importance of manufacturing and an increase of services, information, and research, Requires a factory to maintain a so-called "open shop" and prohibits a "closed shop", Deliberate killing of a place through inddustrial expansion and change so its landscape is destroyed, Outsourcing contrasts with the approach typical of traditional mass production; country controls all phases of a highly complex production process. Therefore in industry, there is a tendency to substitute one factor of production (e.g., labor) … a port, city, or other center to which goods are brought for import and export, and for collection and distribution. Subject. The substitution effect is the decrease in sales for a product that can be attributed to consumers switching to cheaper alternatives when its price rises. THE EVOLUTION OF ECONOMIC CORES AND PERIPHERIES. Substitution principle. Substitution principle Threshold/range Time -space compression Topocide Trade (complementar ity) Unit II. the savings to an individual enterprise derived from locational association with a cluster of other similar economic activities, such as other factories or retail stores. Essential German Verbs. Study Ap Human Geography flashcards and notes with Strougo. the principle that an area produces the items for which it has the greatest ratio of advantage or the least ratio of disadvantage in comparison to other areas, assuming free trade exists; the ability of an individual, firm, or country to produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than other producers. Subject. RikuJames. In view of this, the student is puzzled that regional integration has gone farther in Western Europe than in the Middle East/North Africa region. In 1979, the Chinese government set up these zones on the coast near Macao, Hong Kong and Taiwan. 9th Grade. Your teacher may choose to organize the course content differently based on local priorities and preferences. future shortages of non-renewable energy sources with increased demand, solvable by use of renewable energy. The fashion industry, for example, experiences agglomeration economies because they can share specialized inputs (photographers, models) that would be too … Additional Geography Flashcards . Q. SURVEY . Additional Geography Flashcards . the state of being everywhere at any given time. Gravity. Why are AP® Human Geography scores curved? 30 seconds . Some examples of human geography include cultural landscapes and phenomena, such as language, music and art. All the following have been considered new industrial countries EXCEPT ... substitution principle: is focused on the substitution of a product, service or process to anotherthat is more efficient or beneficial in some way while retaining the samefunctionality: ... For example, it takes relatively few people in an area to … Topocide. coal industry). 1. Vocabulary words, Mr.Crider (6th period) Total Cards. Middle School courses for High School credit Algebra I (1.0 credit) Art I (1.0 credit) Touch System Data Entry (Keyboarding) - (.5 credit) Principles of Human Services (1.0 credit) Principles of Hospitality & Tourism (1.0 credit) Principles of Information Technology (1.0 credit) Concepts of Engineering (1.0 credit) Principles of Manufacturing (1.0 credit) Foreign Language courses - Spanish I-II, NS I –III, … location theory. Geography. Improved transportation, lower taxes, and other incentives attracted investments from foreign businesses. PLAY. The size of an urban place’s hinterland is an indication … 03/31/2011. Total Cards. 5 Steps to a 5: AP Human Geography 2020 by Carol Ann Gillespie - free mobi epub ebooks download ... Three of the most important variables are shown above: raw materials, labor, and markets. She is a former member of the AP Human Geography Development Committee and is currently president of the National Council for Geographic Education. Substitution Principle. In AP® Human Geography, unit 6 covers the development of industrialization and the economic development of states across the world. 7 Weber’s Least Cost Theory Human Geography Alfred Weber (1868-1958) formulated a theory of industrial location in which an industry is located where it can ... For example, when relative labor costs decline, or when land rent goes down, an industry can sustain an increase in transportation costs – this is referred to as the substitution principle. answer. metals utilized to make products other than iron or steel. Created. Subject. Chapter 12: Industry and Services Step 2: Pre-Reading Activity (PRA) Name _____ Period _____ Due Date _____ 1. 3 0 obj He made following assumptions: An even ... Principles in the arrangement of the central places: ... For example, the largest cities like New York, Paris, London, and Rome attract people from across the globe. Although expensive to install, the … Test. Sign up here. … Select the best answer choice. Martha Sharma. Variable costs b. 34 key terms in the APHG study of Industry, culled primarily from the Rubenstein textbook. Human geography; an attempt at a positive classification, principles and examples Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. Sun Belt: Former industrial area of the South that has successfully made the transition to … Therefore in industry, there is a tendency to substitute one factor of production (e.g., labor) for another (e.g., capital for automated equipment) in order to achieve optimum plant location. Learn. AP Human Geo Unit 5 AP Human Geography Agricultural. Each quiz, test or project grade will be set on a curve with the highest score being 100 and all others assigned in respect to the highest score. Directions: Each of the following questions is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Level. Sign up for free today and conquer your course! Created. Demographic Transition Model. Human geography or anthropogeography is the branch of geography that is associated and deals with humans and their relationships with communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across locations. agglomeration: Definition. a form of tourism pursued by many ecologically concerned perople, who visit regions having pristine ecosystems and, in the process, to inflict no environmental damage. AP Human Geography Barron's Ch.6 Vocab. AP Human Geography CH. The Weber model assumes that the cost of labor is a key factor influencing ... A noteworthy example of a high-tech corridor popped up in California's Silicon Valley, where many tech-related companies located. terminal costs (fixed costs of transportation) The costs incurred, and charged, for … AP Human Geography Exam. Hilton Head, South Carolina. Liskov substitution principle imposes some standard requirements on signatures that have been adopted in newer object-oriented ... C++ Report, March 1996. AP Human Geography, Unit 3 ACCULTURATION Occurs when a less-dominent culture comes into contact w/ & adopts traits from a more dominent culture. Geography . Level. Aluminum Industry (Factors of Production, Location). The doctrine of substitution refers to a formal method or process that enables mankind to be brought back into good relationship with God. A student concludes from maps of world languages and religions that Western Europe has greater cultural diversity than the Middle East/North Africa region. ... advantages of concentrating high-tech enterprises in close proximity to one another. This is an example of what concept? N.AM. Which of the following is the best example of a perforated state? Weber, Alfred. Author: Lawrence Charap Created Date: … Description. Cards Return to Set Details. An article popular in the object-oriented programming community that gives several examples of LSP violations. Human Development Index. Physical Quality of Life Index. The Substitution Principle states that the benefits of one input could offset the negatives of another. air shipment is the quickest form but most expensive way; shipping by ship is the cheapest way and can carry the most over a long distance. Check these out: Food Production. a. Japan b. 24. Undergraduate 1. Gravity Model . economic development, or growth, is not uniform over an entire region, but instead takes place around a specific pole. Q. substitution theory. Save. Discuss TWO other variables not mentioned by Weber that … In order to study the region, the bank used a map to analyze potential locations. Created by. Human characteristics: Includes the human-designed cultural features of a place. Threshold/range. Additional Geography Flashcards . Create your own flash cards! Special economic zones (SEZs) are most common in which country? Neocolonialism. endobj Terms in this set (34) agglomeration ... substitution principle. God instituted principles of substitution after the fall of Adam and Eve when He killed an animal to cover their nakedness (Genesis 3:21). AP Human Geography: Industry Vocab. <> Flashcards. Defining Industrialization ... c. Labor Costs and the Substitution Principle 1. EXAMPLES OF AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS 2000 1. Advanced Placement exams are designed to model college courses, many of which are curved. Match. Learn. allows a business to be profitable within a larger area than Weber’s model suggests. Sign up here. World cities. The Liskov Substitution Principle states that an object with a certain interface can be replaced by a different object that implements that same interface while retaining all the correctness of the original program. maintains that the correct location of a production facility is where the net profit is the greatest. 2. A. Food … Human Geography. a location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another. Receding: industry is diminishing in size and importance. Create your own flash cards! variable revenue analysis. It involves making a sacrifice for the forgiveness of sins. Massive charges of electricity are required to extract aluminum from its processed raw material, aluminum oxide. Click here to study/print these flashcards. Course Description: This intense elective course is offered to students who are interested in a class that introduces them to spatial concepts, landscape analysis, human social organization, and interaction between geographical phenomena. Topics of study under human geography, … : vocabulary List to help prepare for the course spending produces an in... Compression Topocide Trade ( complementar ity ) unit II student concludes from maps of world languages and that! Other students the South that has a geographic aspect to it governmental structures and the of. 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